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Equestrian Orders

"In the 15th century since the foundation of the Republic of San Marino, being Captains Regent Giuliano Belluzzi and Michele Ceccoli for the first time, the Great and General Council, during its sitting of 13 August 1859, in sign of its deepest gratitude towards the Providence of God, the Founder of the Republic, Saint Marino, towards those Sovereigns who have always privileged the Republic; well aware of the need to show gratitude towards Those who have effectively cooperated by means of services for the health and the prestige of the Republic, or who have acquired great merits in the humanitarian, scientific and artistic fields […]”

 

With these words, an Equestrian Order for Civil and Military Merit was established in San Marino.

 

The Order was established on 13 August 1859 and was subsequently regulated by the Decrees of 22 March 1860, 27 March 1868 and 11 January 1872.

Equestrian Order of Saint Marino

The Equestrian Order of Saint Marino has five ranks:

  1. Knight of Grand Cross
  2. Knight Grand Officer
  3. Knight Major Officer or Commendatore
  4. Knight Officer
  5. Knight

The Grand Mastership of the Equestrian Order of Saint Marino belongs to the Great and General Council and the pro-tempore Captains Regent, as repositories of executive power, perform its duties in its name. They are the only ones entitled to wear the insignia of this Order while performing public functions and during solemn events.

 

The Equestrian Order of Saint Marino is conferred by the Great and General Council (Parliament), upon proposal of Their Excellencies the Captains Regent of the Republic of San Marino, the oldest Republic in the world, which is still independent and sovereign. In the past, it granted asylum to refugees during the Risorgimento. It was a patriotic land of freedom that offered Italy brave volunteers and welcomed 100,000 refugees during the Second World War.

 

The Equestrian Order of Saint Marino, from which San Marino nationals are excluded, is conferred only for political, artistic and scientific merits. The first rank of the Order is conferred only upon Sovereigns, members of reigning families, State senior officials and exceptionally upon those who have rendered extraordinary services to our Republic. This Order is recognised for all purposes by the Italian Government, as well as by all other States; therefore, those who have been awarded this honour can boast such insignia and the chivalric title. Among the past recipients of the Order of Saint Marino are: H.M. Vittorio Emanuele III, Cardinal Pacelli-former Pope Pius XII, Giosuè Carducci, Luigi Cibrario, Gaspare Finali, etc.

Collar of the Captains Regent

According to the ancient Statutes: ...once the Captains Regent have received from their predecessors the flag and the seals of the Republic, together with the keys of the doors and fortresses of said Land, they get on the throne and assume their Office with the support of God. Today the transfer of these objects is represented by the passage of the Collar, which combines all powers: authority to represent and to defend the State.

 

The Collar of the Captains Regent was established with the 1866 Decree as the highest rank of the Equestrian Order of Saint Marino, i.e. Knight of Grand Cross. It changed its characteristics in 1872, when the Captains Regent were authorised to wear the insignia of Grand Master of the Order of Saint Marino. The Collar is completely distinct from the highest rank of the Equestrian Order.

Collar of the Equestrian Order of Saint Marino

Law no. 25 of 30 April 1964 established the Collar of the Equestrian Order of Saint Marino, which is normally conferred on Heads of State by the Great and General Council.

 

The Collar is made up of gold medallions with the image of Saint Marino in coloured glazes, alternated with gold scrolls bearing the motto Libertas in capital letters in light blue enamel. Medallions and scrolls are connected by gold chains. The series of medallions alternated with scrolls is interrupted at the front by a gold plate bearing the coat of arms of the Republic, without crown, enclosed between two branches of oak and laurel, all in coloured glazes. The decoration of the Order is hung to this plate.

 

The insignia of the Collar are completed by a plate, to be worn on the left side of the chest, which consists of eight gold rays (alternately longer and shorter) with the Cross of the Order; in the spaces between the four arms there are four scrolls bearing the motto Libertas in capital letters in blue enamel.

Equestrian Order of Saint Agatha

The Equestrian Order of Saint Agatha (Co-Founder of the Republic) was established with Decree of 5 June 1923 and amended with the Decrees of 15 September 1923 and 9 June 1925.

  1. Knight of Grand Cross
  2. Knight Grand Officer
  3. Knight Major Officer or Commendatore
  4. Knight Officer
  5. Knight

It is composed of equal ranks and is intended for foreign nationals who, with their services, work and charity, have deserved the merits of the Republic.

 

The power to confer this Order is assigned to a Mastership composed of the two Captains Regent, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, of Internal Affairs and of Health, the Government Syndics, the President of the Parliamentary Commission for Budget, a Law Commissioner and five members elected by the Great and General Council.

 

The rules for the conferral of the Equestrian Order of Saint Agatha are the same as those governing the Equestrian Order of Saint Marino.

 

The Equestrian Order of Saint Agatha is recognised in Italy and elsewhere similarly to the Equestrian Order of Saint Marino.

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